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|Dresden porcelain and Meissen porcelain are sometimes confused P.J. Hall Black Jersey , due to their long and entangled early history. Beginning in the early 1700 s, Johann Bottger, a talented inventor, was kept as the prisoner of Prince Augustus at Albrechtsburg castle in Meissen, a small village only a few miles down the road from much larger Dresden. It was there that Bottger discovered how to make a porcelain as fine as that being imported from China and Japan.
Bottger was originally imprisoned because Prince Augustus believed that Bottger could fashion gold from other materials. When Bottger instead discovered how to make porcelain, Prince Augustus was pleased. Because Prince Augustus was a serious collector of porcelain from Japan and China, he opened a porcelain factory in the Albrechtsburg castle in order to guard the secret of porcelain.
Dresden, Germany was a fundamental heart of the intellectual, artistic, and cultural movement. Many porcelain decorators, as well as sculptors, philosophers, poets, and painters, settled in Dresden. The phrase ?Dresden porcelain? actually denotes more of a movement that focused on artistic interests instead of a specific company that produced Dresden porcelain.
Early Dresden porcelain pieces were seconds (or rejects) from the Meissen manufactory. The painters of the porcelain are the ones who expanded the reach and reputation of the porcelain of Dresden throughout the world. Factories inside Dresden eventually obtained the ability to fashion their own hard paste porcelain from scratch.
Within a few years of inventing porcelain, Bottger died. His apprentice, Johann Horoldt, invented real porcelain paints. These paints were formulated by mixing finely ground glass and metallic ingredients, then binding it with oil. Used during the third mild process phase, the porcelain paint was fired on the translucent glaze. In this manner, the beautiful paintings, and other designs that are part of the allure of Dresden porcelain, were born. Another Horoldt invention that was important in the development of Dresden porcelain was the emergence of the color, iridescent purple. This color was soon seen as a sign of a genuine piece Dresden porcelain.
Rococo revival is a phrase that is used to describe the style of Dresden porcelain. The extensive use of complicated and creative paintings using a plethora of shells, flowers, scrolls, fruit, and foliage was first used by the decorators of Dresden porcelain. The dinnerware collections of Dresden porcelain also enjoyed the most success with this decorative style. These designs were painted on Meissen porcelain blanks in the early years. This probably added to the confusion between Dresden porcelain and Meissen porcelain.
For almost two hundred years, the area enjoyed immense success with its Dresden porcelain. That all ended on the night of February 13, 1945 when allied forces bombed Dresden. The city was almost completely destroyed. Nearly everything in the Dresden porcelain factories was burned beyond recognition. This event effectively signaled the end of the manufacture of Dresden porcelain.
The exquisite designs, and elaborate paintings, featured on many pieces of Dresden porcelain lend themselves to the allure of these highly collectible pieces. In addition, the abrupt ending of the manufacture of Dresden porcelain also adds to its appeal.
The mark of an authentic piece of Dresden porcelain is one of a blue crown with the word ?Dresden? beneath it. This is not to be confused with the crossed swords mark found on Meissen porcelain.
SKOPJE, Aug. 8 (Xinhua) -- Skopje is in the focus of international football fans as two major European teams - Real Madrid and Manchester United, meet in the Macedonian capital to play the UEFA Super Cup final on Tuesday. It is one of the biggest sports events ever to be organized in the country.
Both teams arrived in Skopje on Monday and held their first trainings at the National "Telekom Arena." One of the biggest challenges for the players will be the extreme heat wave rocking Macedonia in recent days, causing temperatures to rise over 40 degrees Celsius.
The coach of the "Red Devils", Jose Murinho, admitted that he had a special strategy to prepare his players for the Macedonian summer heat.
"I knew what's the weather like. When we returned from the US, I decided that we should train in Manchester at 4PM every day. But it kept raining every day there," Murinho said at the pre-match press conference in Skopje. "I think that for Real it will be difficult as well, although they are more accommodated to these types of conditions."
"I don't think that the hot weather will give us any advantage. It is hot in Madrid as well, but both teams prepared in the US. It is 90 minutes of game and we can't do anything to change the weather," said the coach of the Spanish "Kings", Zinedine Zidane.
He hinted that his team's biggest star Cristiano Ronaldo is ready to play against Manchester, although he only returned to training two days ago after he was given an extended break following his Confederations Cup exertions with Portugal.
The Super Cup game will include water breaks if soaring temperatures in Macedonia continue, UEFA confirmed on Monday.
Fans from the UK and Spain, but also from all over the world, poured into Skopje to watch the game. The interest caused the prices of hotel accommodation in Skopje to increase several times for the days surrounding the match.
The fans have already started filling the cafes in Skopje, chanting and having fun prior to the game on Wednesday.
Meanwhile, Interpol issued a list of 60 "dangerous" football fans to the Macedonian authorities that are to be immediately denied if they try to enter Macedonian territory. These are fans of both teams which are known to cause problems and incidents.
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